Component-based design using algorithms for pattern generation (L-systems) in comparison to traditional Biorock cathode designs from rebar. Material savings of up to 80%, enhancements in terms of fabrication, faster assembly using push-to-fit connections (no welding), and full underwater assembly directly at the underwater site (V. Vogler 2022, Fig. 5.4).
The demo shows how artificial coral reef formations can be generated from differently shaped sheet metal components. The algorithm is based on fractals, in particular, L-systems fractals in a newly developed Grasshopper component.
Push-to-fit connections (V. Vogler 2022, Fig. 5.5).
Sheet metal and design algorithms for pattern formation from nature are a new approach to Biorock cathode design. Together with a growing solid calcium carbonate layer, the reef structure gets rigid with time (V. Vogler 2022, Fig. 5. 40).
Test assembly at the beach and final underwater assembly.
Progress of the artificial structure throughout the years (V. Vogler 2022, Fig. 5.19).
Unlimited extensions are possible years later as the sheet metal components inside the CaCO3 layer are intact, which means that connections with new construction elements can be made (V. Vogler 2022, Fig. 5.11).
Artificial reef structure in August 2021. Local dive instructors did not recognize it as an artificial Biorock reef. They thought it was a natural reef. ©Verena Vogler.


Vogler, V. 2022. “A New Framework For Artificial Coral Reef Design.” JoDLA Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture, Issue 7-2022, 524–537. Berlin/Offenbach: Wichmann Verlag im VDE VERLAG. e-ISSN 2511-624X.

Vogler, V. 2022. “A framework for artificial coral reef design: Integrating computational modelling and high precision monitoring strategies for artificial coral reefs – an Ecosystem-aware design approach in times of climate change.” Dissertation Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, 1–243.

Vogler, V., S. Schneider, and J. Willmann. 2019. “High-Resolution Underwater 3-d Monitoring Methods to Reconstruct Artificial Coral Reefs in the Bali Sea: A Case Study of an Artificial Reef Prototype in Gili Trawangan.” Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture 2019 (4). VDE VERLAG GMBH: 275–89. 

Vogler, V. 2018. “Studien zur Geometrie von künstlichen Korallenriffen in der Balisee.” Sonderheft Korallenarchitektur der Andrea von Braun Stiftung. Briefe zur Interdisziplinarität 2018 (21). Oekom Verlag:  1–56.